In September 2015 the UN General Assembly approved a proposal to raise the Palestinian flag at its headquarters, a symbolically important move. Still, its status is not recognized by the United Nations, Israel and major Western nations such as the United States. Previously, Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas submitted a request to join the United Nations as a full member state in 2011, but stalled this request a year later. Instead he pursued a ‘non-member observer status’, which was granted in 2012.
Relations between Fatah and Hamas have been tense. A unity government formed in 2014 was forced to resign in June 2015 after it failed to operate in the Gaza Strip. The closing of the Rafah border crossing with Egypt and continued Israeli–Hamas violence have deteriorated conditions, leading to more resistance. The creation of the state of Israel and the strive for the restoration of a Palestinian state has been at the heart of the Middle Eastern conflicts.
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- 4,422,143 million (World Bank 2015 est.)
- Governmental Type:
- Semi-presidential, parliamentary democracy
- Ruling Coalition:
- Last Elections:
- 25 January 2006 (parliamentary elections)
- Next Elections:
- Sister Parties:
Israel declared independence in 1948 according to the United Nations partition plan for Mandatory British Palestine. The Jewish state would comprise of 56 percent of the mandate territory. Palestinians, supported by surrounding Arab countries, rejected the partition plan. The ensuing Arab-Israeli War (1948-1949) resulted in the occupation of the West Bank (Including East Jerusalem) by Transjordan and the Gaza Strip by Egypt. A large number of Palestinian Arabs became refugees. It was the first in a series of wars fought between Israel and its Arab neighbours. During the 1967 Six Day War, Israel subsequently gained control over Gaza and the West Bank ignoring the so-called Green Line that was agreed upon in the 1949 Armistice Agreements. The Green Line used to mark the line between Israel and the West Bank, Gaza Strip, Golan Heights and Sinai Peninsula (the latter was returned to Egypt in 1982).
Under Israeli occupation Palestinian dissatisfaction grew over the Jewish settlements on the West Bank. Palestinian (political) organizations like Fatah (founded in 1959) and Hamas (founded in 1987) were formed in this period. In 1987 the First Intifada (1987-1993), (literally translated as “shaking off,” usually translated as “uprising”) broke out. The Oslo Accords in 1993 made an end to the violence. In essence, these accords called for the withdrawal of Israeli forces from parts of the Gaza Strip and West Bank and affirmed the Palestinian right to self-government within those areas through the creation of the Palestinian Authority (PA) in 1994. Despite the momentum of the Israeli-Palestinian peace process at the time the effort became stalled.
During the Camp David summit in July 2000 Israel’s Prime Minister Ehud Barak, Chairman of the Palestinian Authority Yasser Arafat, and US President Bill Clinton aimed at reaching a "final status" agreement. In September that same year tensions between the Palestinians and Israeli’s escalated when Ariel Sharon visited the Temple Mount in Jerusalem during the election campaign. The outbreak of the Second Intifada was a fact and peace negotiations were ended. However, after the death of Arafat in November 2004 and the subsequent election of the moderate Mahmoud Abbas as the new President of the PA, both Israel and the PA on a summit at Sharm el-Sheikh in 2005 declared their intentions of ending any bloodshed and revitalizing the Quartet Road Map. As a result, Israel withdrew its settlements from Gaza in September 2005, but did keep its control on maritime, airspace and most land access roads to the Gaza Strip.
Victory Hamas parliamentary election
With the victory of Hamas in January 2006 in the Palestinian legislative elections, the tide turned once again. A general fear for the Islamic party and the fact that Hamas rejected the existence of Israel led to sanctions imposed by Israel, the United States and some European countries. Hamas and Fatah, however, could not agree on a government acceptable to the international community and lift the economic sanctions on the Palestinian Territories. Early in June 2007, violence between Hamas and Fatah intensified, cumulating in the Battle of Gaza, from 7 to 15 June. This led to the current situation in which the West Bank is ruled by the government under Abbas (Fatah), while Hamas controls the Gaza Strip. President Abbas decided to dissolve the cabinet of National Unity and appointed an emergency government headed by Salam Fayyad. Hamas rejected this government stating that a new government needed to be ratified by the Palestine Legislative Council (PLC).
The takeover of Gaza by Hamas was met with an economic and political blockade by Israel. As a result a huge smuggling network was established that worked through tunnels under the 11 kilometer boundary between Egypt and Gaza, through the Sinai desert and Gaza‘s 40 kilometer coastline. Most important was the smuggling of arms that Hamas used to attack Israel. In June 2008 a six-month ceasefire between Israel and the Gaza strip was agreed on. The truce was violated by both Hamas and the Israeli’s several times. On 27 December 2008 Israel started a surprise air strike on Gaza, codenamed "Operation Cast Lead" and on 3 January they started a ground offensive. After nearly a month Israel completed the withdrawal of their troops from the Gaza Strip on 21 January. Tensions between Hamas and Israel remained high after the war. There were several incidents since 2009. Israel retailed against attacks from the Gaza Strip in 2012 and 2014.
According to the United Nations more than 3500 Palestinians were killed during these military operations, of which a large percentage civilians. The Goldstone report was released in September 2009 in which both Israel Defense Forces and Palestinian militants were accused of war crimes and possible crimes against humanity.
Israeli West Bank barrier
Since 2002, the barrier between Israel and the West Bank is one of the most controversial issues in the relationship between Israel and the Palestinian Territories. The 703 kilometer long barrier separates Israel and the Palestinian Territories mostly along the so-called "Green Line", the territorial boundary the two parties agreed upon in 1949. Supporters of the barrier state that it is built to stop the acts of Palestinian terrorism, predominantly bus-bombings. Opponents of the barrier argue that Israel tries to annex Palestinian land illegally under the guise of security. The idea for the barrier initially came from Yitzhak Rabin in 1992. However, it lasted until 2002 before Israel, under Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, started to build the barrier. Two similar barriers, the Israeli Gaza Strip barrier and the Israeli-built 7 to 9 meter wall separating Gaza from Egypt, which was temporarily breached on 23 January 2008, are just as controversial. Since 2012 Israel stepped up its efforts to fortify its border. Around 65% of the projected wall was finished. The project is constantly adjusted to the new security situation. In 2018 the Defense Department announced it would also build an underground wall on the border with the Gaza Strip against tunnels.
In 2011 officials from both Fatah and Hamas announced the two organizations had reached an deal to unify the two parties into one government, and to plan elections for 2012. This resulted in an actual agreement on a national unity government in 2012 in Doha. The deal paved the way for new parliamentary and presidential elections in the Palestinian Territories The accord fell apart during the 2012 municipal election in the Palestinian Territories. The groups couldn’t work together. New reconciliation initiatives were launched in the aftermath. In October 2017 Egypt brokered a reconciliation agreement between the two parties. Hamas agreed it would turn over control of the Gaza Strip to Fatah. Deadlines to implement the accord have mostly not been met, though small steps have been taken. Beginning of March 2018, Prime Minister Rami Hamdallah announced some 20,000 Hamas employees were added to the 2018 PA budget, in return for control over taxation and law enforcement.
Amidst the Palestinian reconciliation the conflict with Israel continues. Since the end of the Obama era, no new peace initiatives have been launched. The Trump Administration announced in December 2017 that it would recognize Jerusalem as the official Israeli capital. In response, the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) Central Council opened the way to suspending its recognition of Israel, though this drastic measure has not been implemented yet, only a committee to study the move has been installed. Withdrawal would threaten PLO-Israeli relations, raise doubts over security coordination and most likely be a fatal blow to the two-state solution.
|1923||Palestinian Territories part of ‘British Mandate for Palestine’|
|1948||Declaration of independence Israel and Arab-Israeli War|
|1967||Six Day War|
|1973||Yom Kippur war|
|1987||Start First Intifada|
|2002||Beginning building Israeli West Bank barrier|
|2004||Death Yasser Arafat|
|2005||Mahmoud Abbas elected as President|
|2005||Withdrawal Israeli settlements from Gaza|
|2006||Victory Hamas in Parliamentary Elections|
|2006||Operation "Summer Rains" (Israeli intervention)|
|2007||“Battle of Gaza” violence between Fatah and Hamas (June)|
|2008||“Gaza War,” Operation Cast Lead (28 December)|
|2012||Operation Pillar of Defense|
|2014||Operation "Protective Edge" (July-August)|
|2017||The United States recognizes Jerusalem as capital of Israel|
|2019||The United States do not longer consider Israeli settlements illegal|
On a national level, the Palestinians elect a head of state - the president - and a legislature - the Palestine Legislative Council (PLC), a unicameral parliament consisting of 132 members. Since the election law of 2005 came into force, the Palestinian Authority has a mixed electoral system combining both a majority system (districts) and a system of proportional representation (lists). The law divides the 132 seats of the PLC equally between the majority system (66 seats) and the system of proportional representation (66 seats). The PLC is elected for a four-year term.
Based on the majority system, the Palestinian Territories are divided into 16 electoral districts (11 in the West Bank and 5 in the Gaza Strip). Each district is allocated a number of seats in the parliament according to the number of its population. Six out of the 66 seats allocated to the majority system are reserved for Christians, because it is considered the minimum quota for their representation in the council.
In the system of proportional representation, the whole country is considered as one electoral district. Following the election law, each electoral list must include a minimum of 7 candidates and a maximum of 66 candidates. Each list must also include at least one woman in the first three names, at least one woman in the next four names and at least one woman in each of the five names that follow in the list. Lists that receive a minimum of 2 percent on the basis of the proportional representation system are allocated the number of seats proportional to the total number of votes that the list receives. Its population determines the number of seats each electoral district receives.
It is important to distinguish the Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO) on the one hand and the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) on the other. The PLO was founded in 1964 aiming at liberating the Palestinian state with its 1947 borders. Until today it is the sole representative of the Palestinian Diaspora in international institutions as the United Nations (UN) and the Arab League. The PNA on the other hand was a direct result of the 1993 Oslo Accords, founded as a 5-year transitional body during which final status negotiations between Israel and the Palestinian Territories were to take place.
In 2007 President Abbas unilaterally changed the electoral law to full proportional representation. He insisted he could issue the change by decree as long as the PLC was unable to convene. The move was seen as a bid to lessen the chances of Hamas in the next election. Hamas declared the move to be illegal. The call for elections by Abbas early in 2011 and the resignation of the cabinet at the same time has not ended the rule of decree yet. The question whether next elections will be on the basis of a mixed proportional representation and majority system or a full proportional representation was not clear until the time of this writing in March 2018.
The new local election law of 2005 states that political parties must have at least one woman among the first three on the list, at least one woman among the next four, and one woman among every five for the rest of the list. This guarantees about 20 percent women among the candidates. As of June 2009, only 5 out of 23 ministers and 17 of 131 legislative councils seats belonged to women, which comprises 13 percent of the total number of PLC members. Still women's representation in the PLC is higher than in most other Arab parliaments.
According to Article 9 of the Palestinian Basic Law, which was amended in 2005, all Palestinians are equal before law and there is no distinction between them on the basis of ethnicity, sex, color, religion, political point of view or disability. Article 4 however stipulates that the Sharia (Islamic law) is a main source of legislation, opening the door to discriminatory provisions. Despite the Basic Law's guarantees described in Article 9, many laws currently in force do not penalize gender discrimination. The laws that do so are difficult to enforce due to weak institutional mechanisms for handling such cases. The Personal Status law, based on religious laws, puts women at a disadvantage in matters of marriage, divorce and inheritance.
Although the Palestinian Authority is making progress in improving the lives and legal rights for women in the West Bank, the victory of Hamas in the 2006 parliamentary elections have led to greater restrictions of women’s rights in Gaza, where the Sharia is implemented more strictly. Domestic abuse, rape and "honour killings", in which relatives murder women for perceived sexual or moral transgressions, are common, and these crimes often go unpunished. In the West Bank, as noted before, the situation is better but all abuses are not uncommon. Under Hamas, women’s dress and movements in public have been increasingly restricted by the so-called morality police, who are tasked with enforcing orthodox Islamic customs.
Despite the fact that Palestinian women form a majority of university students in the West Bank, they are underrepresented in most professions and encounter discrimination in employment. In 2009 women only accounted for 15.1 percent of the labour force and the female unemployment rate stands at 23.8 percent.
On 25 January 2006, the first elections since 1996 for the Palestinian Legislative Council were held. The Islamic Hamas, that contested at the List of Change and Reform, won 74 seats; an absolute majority. Fatah, that had effectively been in power in the last several decades, received a severe blow winning only 45 seats.
According to analysts it was Hamas’ focus on clean policy and its successful attacks on widespread corruption within the Fatah-led Palestinian Authority that provided for its electoral victory. International observers considered the elections to be conducted quite fairly, showing Palestinian commitment to democratic elections, also considering the high turnout rate of around 74 percent. However, there were some reports of problems during election day itself. Voters in East Jerusalem were not provided voting privacy, and it was said that Fatah had used Palestinian Authority resources for its campaign, whereas in many mosques campaigning activities on behalf of Hamas (List of Change and Reform) were reported.
|Alliances and Parties||Seats*|
|Hamas (List of Change and Reform)||74 (29/45)|
|Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine||3 (3/0)|
|The Alternative||2 (2/0)|
|Independent Palestine (Palestine National Initiative and independents)||2 (2/0)|
|Third Way||2 (2/0)|
* Total seats (proportional/district seats)
On 29 March 2006 President Mahmoud Abbas swore in – much to the displeasure of among others the EU and the United States – Hamas’ 24-member cabinet led by Prime Minister Ismail Haniya. This cabinet consists mostly of Hamas members and includes one Christian and one woman. The government’s political programme stressed the need for comprehensive reform within the Palestinian Territories, fighting corruption and enforcing the rule of law as well as democratic principles and institutions. It only considered negotiations with Israel (consequently referred to as ‘the occupation state’) if Israel completely withdraws its settlements from the Palestinian Territories. Until then, the government recognized any form of resistance as a legitimate right of the Palestinian people to end the occupation.
The most recent Palestinian presidential elections took place on 9 January 2005 in the West Bank and Gaza. In accordance with the Palestinian Basic Law these elections were to be held within 60 days after the death of former President Yasser Arafat. Seven candidates contested in the election. Three of them withdrew during the campaign.
PLO chairman Abbas won over 62 percent of the votes, with independent Mustafa Barghouti coming second, winning 19 percent of the votes. Palestinian Legislative Council member and Fatah leader in the West Bank Marwan Barghouti was seen as the only candidate who could hope to seriously compete against Abbas. However, his proposed candidacy met with resistance from Fatah activists, fuelling rumours that the Fatah party was internally divided along generational lines. After successive contradictory announcements, Marwan Barghouti retired from the race due to discussions between his representatives and the Fatah leadership.
|Candidate||% of votes|
|Mahmoud Abbas (Fatah)||62.52 %|
|Mustafa Barghouti (Independent)||19.48 %|
|Taysir Khald (Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine)||3.35 %|
|Abdel Halim al-Ashqar (Independent)||2.76 %|
|Bassam al-Salhi (Palestinian People's Party)||2.67 %|
|Sayyid Barakah (Independent)||1.30 %|
|Abdel Karim Shubeir (Independent)||0.71 %|
|Invalid Ballots||3.82 %|
|Blank Ballots||3.39 %|
The election campaign faced some problems – Mustafa Barghouti was arrested by Israeli forces when he was on his way to hold an election speech in East Jerusalem; other candidates were denied access to East Jerusalem as well - due to the widespread blockade of the Palestinian Territories by Israel. Also on election day a number of incidents were reported. Voting was controversially extended for two hours, apparently at the request of Fatah, which led to the subsequent resignation of the head of the Central Elections Commission. Despite all this, international observers considered the elections to have been conducted fairly. The turnout rate was around 48 percent according to the Palestinian Election Commission.
Abbas’ address to the United Nations Security Council: twenty-five years of diplomacy under pressure
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- CIA World Fact Book West Bank
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- Wikipedia: Fatah
- Wikipedia: Hamas
- Wikipedia: The Palestinian Legal Council
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- Robert Soeterik, Palestijnse gebieden (Amsterdam 2010)
- Kimmerling, B. & Migdal, J.S. (2003) The Palestinian People. A History. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
- Pappe, I. (2004) A History of modern Palestine. One land, two peoples. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.