After having managed to peacefully survive the 1990’s wars that led to the disintegration of Yugoslavia, Montenegro’s politics and its society were determined by the relations with, and independence from Serbia. In 2006 a majority of 55.5 percent declared in a referendum to be in favour of independence, narrowly passing the official 55,5 percent threshold. Anno 2018 Montenegro is in the process of EU accession - talks have been opened on 25 out of 33 negotiation chapters and five of them already closed. On the one hand, the country has relatively good relations with other countries in South East Europe, is frontrunner in the region when it comes to LGBTI Rights, has appointed an independent special prosecutor to tackle organised crime and high level corruption, considerably improved the relations between civil society and the government, aligned its foreign policy with the EU and became a NATO member in 2017. On the other hand, however, business tycoons are dominating the economy that mostly runs on remittances and tourism, major incidents around election day are the rule rather than the exception, and the country has never experienced a change of power at elections.
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- 644,578 million (World Bank 2016 est.)
- Governmental Type:
- Ruling Coalition:
- Democratic Party of Socialists, the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party
- Last Elections:
- 2018 (presidential elections)
- Next Elections:
- 2020 (parliamentary elections)
- Sister Parties:
- Democratic Party of Socialists (DPS), the Liberal Party (LP), Social Democrats (SD, SDP split-off), Albanian coalition and Croatian Citizens’ Initiative
Montenegro has become a NTO member in June 2017 and is a candidate country for the EU and opened twenty-five chapters in the EU negotiations, while five have already been closed. The initial invitation to NATO led to protests by pro-Serbian parties and their supporters. Further protests were fueled by the opposition alliance Democratic Front (DF) who voiced accusations of corruption, undemocratic practices and election fraud against President Milo Djukovic (Democratic Party of Socialists, DPS). During the elections of 2016 several incidents occurred reflecting the choice between NATO and Europe or Russia on the other hand. In the end, a ‘choice for the West’ coalition was formed led by DPS, which got the majority of votes. Although divided, the opposition has become stronger due to the reforms that go along with the EU integration process. The Russian government has been critical of Montenegro's bid to join NATO, which culminated in a coup attempt on 16 October 2016. Still Russia has a large economic presence in Montenegro, with almost 30 percent of Foreign Direct Investment in 2016 going Montenegro coming from Russia on top of that Roughly one-third of foreign companies operating in the country are owned by Russians. Altough Russia has "lost" Montenegro to NATO it remains determined to exert influence in the region.
After World War II Montenegro became one of the six equal republics of the Yugoslav federation. After the disintegration of Yugoslavia, Montenegro remained in a union with Serbia as the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. On 21 May 2006 a referendum was held, where the majority of the Montenegrin population (55.5 percent) declared to be in favour of independence. With that the threshold of 55 percent as stippled by the EU was narrowly passed. Montenegro’s first parliamentary and presidential elections as an independent state as well as the parliamentary elections of October 2012 did not bring any big political changes.
Since 1998 SDP and DPS ruled together. The coalition became less stable over time.. At the national level DPS blocked the adoption of a new electoral law. Failure to adopt this electoral law could lead to a serious political crisis. After the blockade, the main opposition party, Democratic Front Party, has left the parliament. They accused DPS for obstructing the Assembly and claimed that DPS needs to take responsibility for the political crisis. On local level the rapture between the two party became already apparent in 2013. While on national level the parties only broke just before the parliamentary election in 2016.
The blockade of the DPS has deepened the distrust between the opposition and the government, which started on April 2013 with electoral fraud and misuse of state resources on the presidential elections, announced the Democratic Front. Next to the national level, friction at the local level was visible as well: during local elections in 2013 the SDP decided to work together with an opposition party, which is the first time since DPS and SDP rule together. This new alliance could cause friction within the national coalition. For the April 2014 local elections in the capital Podgorica SDP formed a pre-election coalition with the new opposition ‘Positive’ party.
The country has been immersed in a coup drama since the 16 October general elections when authorities arrested 20 people accused of planning armed attacks against government institutions. This group consisted of mostly Serb nationals, but also included two Russian citizens, Eduard Sirokov and Vladimir Popov, and two Montenegrin opposition leaders.
Prime Minister at that time Milo Djukanovic (DPS), whose party came out first in the election but without a parliamentary majority, had presented the vote as a chance for Montenegro’s 620,000 citizens to endorse his policy of joining NATO and the EU, instead of pursuing deeper ties with allies in Serbia and Russia.
Since then, tensions have built up, and the situation became even more tense after the nation’s special prosecutor lifted the parliamentary immunity of two leaders who are suspected of having participated in a failed coup. In February 2017, riot police were stationed to restrain hundreds of protesters who gathered in front of the parliament in Podgorica to protest against the motion lifting the two leaders’ immunity. It is assumed by the government that the coup to attack Montenegro’s parliament and kill Djukanovic was directed by Russian intelligence officers in order to sabotage the country’s plan to join NATO.
Nonetheless Montenegro joined NATO in April 2017 as the parliament voted 46-0 for joining the alliance. The opposition boycotted the vote and protested outside the parliament building. The relationship between Podgorica and Moscow has further deteriorated due to Montenegro’s NATo0 membership.
Parliament, dominated by the Democratic Party of Socialists, lifted one of opposition leaders Medojevic‘s immunity on the request of the special prosecutor for organised crime, Milivoje Katnic. Katnic said police should take Medojevic in for questioning, after which a decision on his possible arrest would be made. Medojevic is known as one of the sharpest critics of the government and of the ruling party run by veteran leader Milo Djukanovic.
But the question remains whether this was a genuine coup attempt. On the one hand, it is claimed that it was a sinister effort to overturn a democratically elected administration and take over the country by force. On the other, critical analysts argue that it was a carefully choreographed event, designed to win sympathy for a controversial and allegedly corrupt ruling party that is in power since 1991 on the verge of decreasing public support.
It is believed by these critics that the government sought to manipulate the situation to its advantage. Although the indictment says Velimirović told authorities about the plot several days before the election, there was no mention of it in the media until election day itself, when the arrests of several alleged conspirators were announced. Internet communication services such as WhatsApp and Viber were cut off for hours during the day. All of these elements contributed to the sense that the country was in danger — a sense that may have persuaded some voters to rally behind the ruling party for the sake of stability.
After the presidential elections in April 2013, won narrowly by DPS candidate Filip Vujanović, allegations of misuse of public resources were ever louder. Under pressure from the opposition, the SDP, junior partner in the governing coalition, and Brussels, the process of so-called 'restore confidence in the electoral process' started. An inquiry team was founded in which all the parties were represented, in addition to the representatives from the NGO sector, while Brussels also provided with technical assistance.
The Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2013 states that pervasive corruption, marked by nepotism, political favouritism, and weak controls over conflicts of interest in all branches of the government is one of the biggest problems in Montenegro. In the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) 2016 of Transparency International, Montenegro scored 45, which is one point more than in 2013. Since 2013 it has moved from the 67th position to the 64th position (together with Oman, Senegal, South Africa and Suriname).
Freedom of media continues to be a problem in Montenegro and in December 2015 the European Parliament’s Montenegro rapporteur condemned the attacks on activists and politicians by the media and urged in a resolution to continue OSCE-facilitated dialogue on improving ethical and professional standards in the media.
In 2008, Montenegro applied for EU membership. In December 2011, the Council launched the accession process with a view to opening negotiations in June 2012, which started at 29 June. Since its accession process the European Commission has presented a (progress) report for Montenegro each year. In the last report of 2016, Montenegro's first priority should be reforms concerning the rule of law ‘demonstrated by tangible results on fighting corruption and organised crime’, because it will also determine the pace of the of the negotiations. The EU also stressed improving the economy due to increasing public debt and strengthening the administrative capacity to ensure the application of the European acquis. Currently 25 out of 35 chapters are opened, while five chapters are already closed.
For ruling Democratic Party of Socialists (DPS) and their leader Milo Djukanovic, the EU accession could be less favourable. There will be more supervision on his work, powers will be transferred to the parliament and the rule of law will be strengthened. This will put pressure on the power basis of Djukanovic possibly resulting in charges against him, something we have seen happing in Croatia with former Prime Minister Ivo Sander. Moreover, the accession process gives other parties less of a reason to work together with the DPS: In 2012 the SDP was part of the Coalition for a European Montenegro led by Djukanović, instead of following an independent political course. In 2016, after a split within their party, the SDP left the ruling coalition and even announced a vote of no confidence. The split provided an opportunity to SDP to reform and modernise into a citizens’ party, transparent and open to outside influence and a vocal point for civil society and human rights activist. Furthermore, the party can engage in new partnerships with the progressive opposition that will have more room to manoeuvre as the EU accession negotiations move on.
In February 2019, protests against President Milo Dukanovic and his government started, calling on his resignation following accusation of corruption and electoral fraud. The protests kicked off after media revealed footage and documents that appear to show top officials accepting suspicious funds for the party of Dukanovic, exposing the so called “Atlas” and “Envelope” affairs. The DPS and Djunakovic quickly denied any wrongdoing claiming that all donations were recorded in the party’s financial records.
Opposition parties supported the protests, which are still going on, but refrained from taking a leading role in the organization behind the demonstrations or address the crowd. The organization behind the protests is called Odupri Se! (Resist!) and consist of an informal group of intellectuals, academics, activists and journalists. The official demand of the movement was that the government should fold for the formation of a technical government, on the grounds that the conditions for free and transparent elections are not in place, but also for the resignation of President Đukanovic and the chief prosecutor for organized crime, among other people. The movements was supported by people from the entire political landscape, with left-wing, moderate and right-wing factions working together in an attempt to oust the current government. On 4 December the Anti-Corruption Agency, ASk, published a report and subsequent ruling about the affair, after it was pressured by opposition parties to release it. The ruling concluded that the DPS had failed to report 47.500 euro in donations, and issued a fine of 20.000 in response.
Representation of women
Women remain significantly underrepresented in Montenegrin politics. In the presidential election of 2008 no female candidates competed. The 2012 parliamentary elections provided for an improvement in women election participation with a total of 264 women that stood as candidates, declared to be a significant increase from past elections. In 2016, 15 out of 81 seats in the parliament are held by women, which is two more than in 2012. This is the highest share of women in the history of this institution. However, Montenegro lags behind on other Western-Balkan countries.
The Democratic Party of Socialists (DPS) of current Prime Minister Milo Djukanovic won the parliamentary elections in Montenegro on 16 October 2016 with 41 percent of the votes. After winning yet another election in October 2016, ‘father of the nation’ and long-time Prime Minister Milo Djukanović (Democratic Party of Socialists, DPS) resigned after having been in power since 1991. This is the third time Djukanovic has ‘left’ politics, although he always remained very influential and was widely believed to be pulling the strings from the backstage. During his breaks in power he remained leader of the ruling DPS and it is expected that he will continue to be the party leader in the years ahead. His confidant Duško Marović now formed a ruling coalition together with the SPD split-off Social Democrats (SD) and the national minority parties (Bosnian, Albanian and Croatian). With the 36 seats of the DPS, the 2 seats of the SD and 4 seats of the national minority parties the ruling coalition has a slight majority of 42 out of 81 seats. The voters turnout on 16 October was 71 percent despite the actively spread through the social media flashmob of ‘staying lazy’ on elections day.
|Party||% of the votes||Seats||Seats 2012|
|Democratic Party of Socialists (DPS)||41.41 %||36||33|
|Democratic Front (DF)||20.32 %||18||20|
|Ključ (Key) Coalition||11.05 %||9||9|
|Democratic Montenegro||10.01 %||8||0*|
|Social Democratic Party (SDP)||5.23 %||4||6|
|Social Democrats||3.26 %||2||0*|
|Bosniak Party||3.16 %||2||1|
|Positive Montenegro||1.32 %||0||7|
|Albanians Decisively||1.27 %||1||0|
|Albanian Coalition||0.89 %||0||1|
|Croatian Civic Initiative||0.47 %||1||0|
*These parties did not compete in the 2012 elections
On 15Th April 2018 voters could cast their ballots for the presidential elections. Of the seven candidates, the major candidates were Milo Đukanović of the rulling DPS, independent Mladen Bojanić(but supported by most opposition parties) and Draginja Vuksanović of the SDP. Incumbent president Filip Vujanović is ineligible for re-election. Leading up to the elections, the opposition tried to unite against the long ruling DPS. Six time prime minister Đukanović was nominated in early March by the DPS to run. In reaction to this decision most political parties, with the exception of the SDP, united behind Bojanić.
Number of votes
Campaign and election
The long rule of Djukanovic’s DPS was one of the central issues of the campaign. After serving ones as president and six times as prime minister, most of the opposition parties supported Mladen Bojanic in order to end his continuous rule. Bojanic accused the veteran leader of ‘’capturing the state." Many of the current problems, like the recent wave of violence caused by criminal organizations, have existed in Montenegro since the start of the rule of Djukanovic according to Bojanic. "I agree with Djukanovic that the state is stronger than the mafia. But the problem is that I do not know which side he is on."
Although the vote was relatively free, monitoring groups like CEMI and CT, reported voter irregularities at numerous polling stations. Members of the DPS were seen recording voters outside polling stations, possibly pressuring them. In the town of Berane there were reports of possible vote buying. Even very limited manipulation can have a major influence on the result: Montenegro is a small country and only 180.000 people voted for Djukanovic which results in 53,9 percent of the vote.
Social Democratic Parties
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News and analysis
- BETA News Agency
- Civilitas Research
- Freedom house
- Institute for war and peace reporting
- Radio Free Europe – Radio Liberty
- Transitions Online
- BBC country profile
- CIA world factbook
- United Nations – common country assessment
- US Department of State
- European Commission Serbia and Montenegro - Stabilisation and Association Report 2004
- European Union’s external relations with Serbia and Montenegro
- Commission Report 2012