Algeria

Last update: 6 months ago

The People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria is an Islamic, Arab and Amazigh (Berber) country. After a long history of colonisation by France, the Algerian people were dissatisfied with the way the French treated them on their own land. After the independence (1962), a violent civil war emerged, which was the result of an undemocratic interference of the military. In the civil war there were many casualties, but current President Bouteflika gave an amnesty to the guerrilla fighters. The violence has declined from that point on and Algeria can now start to work on a constructive way to democratisation. 

In the beginning of 2011, widespread protests broke out over the sudden increase in staple food prices. The government lowered the food prices, but the Arab spring in neighbouring countries inspired labour unions, opposition parties and religious groups to organise large-scale protests across the entire country. In late February, Bouteflika’s government lifted the 19-year state of emergency in response to the protests. As a response to the unrest the authorities promised to make the 2012 parliamentary elections a next step on the road towards real democracy. But while officials billed the elections as 'an Algerian spring' they were mainly marked by a low turnout.

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Map of Algeria

Short facts

Population:
39,666,519 million (World Bank 2015 est.)
Governmental Type:
Republic
Ruling Coalition:
National Liberation Front (FLN), National Rally for Democracy (RND)
Last Elections:
17 April 2014 (presidential elections)
Next Elections:
4 May 2017 (parliamentary elections)
Sister Parties:
None
Image of Abdelaziz Bouteflika

Abdelaziz Bouteflika

President

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Image of Abdelmalek Sellal

Abdelmalek Sellal

Prime Minister

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Political Situation

The president
The head of the executive branch of Algeria is an elected president for a term of five years. Candidates can be nominated in two ways; either by 600 elected officials or by a popular petition of at least 75.000 registered voters. The prime minister, who is appointed by the president, appoints the members of the cabinet.

On 11 September 1998, President Zeroual announced he would stand down and early presidential elections would be called. He did this to facilitate a transfer back to normal elections for the office, for he was once appointed in 1992 as President to achieve this goal. On 15 April 1999 the elections were held. After the withdrawal of six candidates, only Abdelaziz Bouteflika (National Rally for Democracy, RND) remained. The other candidates withdrew because they were afraid of massive fraud in favour of Bouteflika. Early in April they demanded that results from mobile and other special polling stations should not be counted, as they suspected government departments of swelling their number to make rigging easier. At the end Bouteflika won the elections with 73.79 percent.

The parliament
The People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria has a bicameral parliament, which consists of the National People’s Assembly and the National Council.

The National People’s Assembly
The National People's Assembly (the lower house) consists of 462 members who are elected with the universal, direct suffrage according to the proportional representation system. Eight of these seats are reserved for Algerians living abroad. The term of legislature is five years. The members of the National People’s Assembly are directly elected in 48 multi-member constituencies - corresponding to country’s wilayas (administrative districts) - with seats allotted according to the population: one seat for every 80,000 inhabitants and one supplementary seat for every fraction of 40,000. No wilaya has less than four seats. Voting is not compulsory. Either the president or one of the parliamentary chambers may initiate legislation. 

In December 1991 the first free multiparty general elections for the former National People’s Assembly were held. After the first round it was very clear that the fundamentalist Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) was going for a victory. The army then cancelled the elections and suspended the constitution. This escalated and was followed by widespread disturbances and numerous arrests of prominent Islamists.

After the escalations had cooled down an advisory body on legislation, the National Consultative Council, was set up in April 1992. It functioned until the National Transitional Council was inaugurated in May 1994 for a three-year transitional period. In March 1997 a new electoral law was adopted and a new date for elections was announced in June 1997. The elections were in a context of mounting violence by armed groups, as well as human rights violations. FIS called for a boycott after being barred from running. The elections took place in the presence of 200 international observers; the turnout was officially 65.6 percent. The National Rally for Democracy (RND), who did not even exist three months earlier, had won 156 out of 380 seats. The MSP-Hamas won 69 seats, the National Liberation Front (FLN) won 64 and the Islamist Party 34. Women represented 3.4 percent of the total number of members of the Assembly. UN observers noted that some voting conditions could not fully guarantee neutrality in the voting process.

The National Council
The National Council (the upper house) was first instituted in 1996 and consists of 144 seats. Wilaya assemblies indirectly elect 96 members of the National Council and 48 are appointed by the president. The term of legislature is six years, of which half of the members are being re-elected or reappointed every three years.

At this moment the elected seats of the National Council mainly go to the RND (about 83.3 percent), FLN (10.4 percent), FFS (Front of Socialist Forces 4.1 percent) and Hamas/HMS/MSP (Movement for a Peaceful Society 2.1 percent). The last election of the National Council took place in December 2003.

The president of the National Council is Adbelkader Bensalah. Women represent 5.5 percent of the total members of the Council. The National Council is a legislative branch and must approve any law approved by the National Assembly with a three-quarters majority.

Elections

Parliamentary elections

On the 4th of May 2017 parliamentary elections for Algeria’s 462-seat National Assembly took place. The National Liberation Front (FNL), party of current President Abdelaziz Bouteflika, won 164 seats, a loss of 44 seats compared to the previous elections. It’s government coalition partner, the National Democratic Rally (RDN), won 97 seats, 29 more than in the previous election. The current coalition will thus retains its majority.

The opposition remains very fragmented with 26 parties getting 10 or less seats. Among the Islamist parties the Islamist alliance Movement for the Society of Peace (MSP) was the biggest  party, winning 33 seats. The Rally for Hope in Algeria (TAJ), which participated for the first time, was the second biggest Islamist party with 19 seats. The Islamist parties won 67 seats combined, 7 more than in the previous elections. The secular  and social democratic parties Front of Socialist Forces (FFS) and Algerian Popular Movement (MPA) won 14 and 13 seats respectively. Of the 462 MP’s elected, 120 are women.

Election Results

Party Seats in Parliament
 National Liberation Front (FLN) 164
 National Rally for Democracy 97
Alliance HMS 33
Independent candidates 28
 Tajamoua Amel El Djazair (TAJ) 19
"Nahda - Adala - Bina" (N A B)  15 
Front El Moustakbal (FM) 14
Front of Socialist Forces (FFS) 14
Algerian Popular Movement (MPA) 13
Workers Party (PT) 11
 Others 54
 Total 462

 

Turnout was very low in the North-African country, with only 38 percent of the more than 23 million registered voters casting their vote. In the 2012 turnout was low as well, but slightly higher with 43 percent. Many Algerians distrust the political system which they view as corrupt; the National Assembly is granted only limited powers, while the president holds ultimate power. After accusations emerged in February that candidates payed to have their names added to party lists Algerians became even more sceptical about the fairness of the elections. Furthermore many young Algerians didn’t vote because of the lack of change and reforms implemented and the high youth unemployment rate.

Allegations of fraud

Dozens of allegations of fraud, and a few hundred irregularities have been reported, despite an independent electoral commission and the presence of nearly 300 observers. Abderrazak Makri, leader of the MSP, also outed allegations of fraud saying his party would have been the biggest party if there hadn’t been any fraud. Elections observers have not yet commented on the accusations of fraud. Interior Minister Noureddine Bedoui said the elections were a success.


Presidential elections

The most recent presidential elections took place in April 2014. Incumbent President Abdelaziz Bouteflika ran and won for a fourth term. He gained over 81 percent of the votes, despite a declining health that prevented him from actively campaigning. Other candidates running in this election were Ali Benfils for the Independents, Louisa Hanoune of the Workers' Party (PT), Moussa Touati of the Algerian National Front (FNA), Abdelaziz Belaid for the Front for the Future Party, and Ali Fawzi Rebaine for Ahd 54.

Algeria's main opposition leaders said before the election that it was a "done deal" set up in Bouteflika's favour.

Election results

Candidates Votes %
 Abdelaziz Bouteflika (National Liberation Front)  8,332,598  81.53 %
 Ali Benfils (Independent)  1,244,918   12,18 %
 Abdelaziz Belaid (Front for the Future)  343,624  3,36 %
 Louisa Hanoune (Workers' Party)  140,253  1.37 %
 Ali Fawzi Rebaine (Ahd 54)  101,046  0.99 %
 Moussa Touati (Algerian National Front)  57,590  0.56 %
 Invalid votes     1,087,449  -
 Total   21,871,393  -


The results of the presidential election of 2012 were clearly in favour of President Abdelaziz Bouteflika, who gained more than 80 percent of votes. Nevertheless, authorities put the turnout at just above 51 percent, which is quite low. There were a few incidents, especially in the Berber area of Kabylie. Bouteflika called the election an “eloquent lesson in democracy” shortly after results were announced. He thanked Algerians for the confidence they granted him. At the same time, his main opponent Ali Benfils condemned the election as a "fraud on a massive scale".

The proportion of Algerians who went voting was much smaller this time than in 2009, when around 75 percent of went voting. Many voices rose to denounce the lack of change within Algerian politics and the need for new political figures to step in. Despite all that, some voters underlined that their priority was on stability and peace and the Bouteflika choice thus made sense. Indeed, his first mandates led to a reduction in the civil war conflicts as well as a restoration of economic stability.

Allegations of fraud
Observers and Bouteflika's five low-profile challengers criticized Bouteflika’s victory, according to them there was a lot of fraud. The Interior Minister, however, did not notice any precise and concrete cases which would indicate large scale fraud. People protesting against the results after they were announced, blocked roads with burning tires and clashed with police in the Kabylie province east of Algiers. The opposition Front of Socialist Forces accused the authorities of artificially inflating the turnout. “There was a real tsunami of massive fraud which reached an industrial scale”, the party said in a statement. The RCD, which called for a boycott of the election, said youth tried to storm its Algiers headquarters after the announcement of the results. A party statement said clashes occurred when Bouteflika supporters tried to pull out the black flag the party was waving above its offices in sign of mourning for Algeria's faltering democracy. Said Sadi also said he would take Algerian PM Ahmed Ouyahia to court for defamation. During the election campaign Ouyahia had publicly denounced those calling for an election boycott as traitors to the nation. The opposition leader also accused Bouteflika of violating the country’s law by appropriating the struggle against the colonial French for himself, saying Bouteflika abused the nation’s symbols of heritage. Sadi accused the Algerian president of using liberation war heroes for his campaign posters even though Algerian electoral law prohibits it. He was not very optimistic about his chances of success in an Algerian court, but insisted his legal action did have a more symbolic importance.

The election results matter to the outside world because Algeria, an OPEC member, has the world's 15th largest oil reserves and accounts for 20 percent of the EU's gas imports. Turmoil in Algeria could also lead to a wave of illegal migrants to Europe. Some sections of the population feel disconnected from the political process and analysts say that helps feed Algeria's low-level Islamist insurgency, now affiliated to al-Qaeda. 

Political parties

Left-wing Parties

Logo of Front of Socialist Forces

Front of Socialist Forces (FFS)

Party Leader: Abdelmalek Bouchafa

Number of seats: 27

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Logo of The National Liberation Front

The National Liberation Front (FLN )

Party Leader: Djamel Ould Abbes

Number of seats: 208

http://www.pfln.dz/

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Other Parties

Logo of National Rally for Democracy

National Rally for Democracy (RND)

Party Leader: Ahmed Ouyahia

Number of seats: 68

http://www.rnd-dz.org/

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Parties of the Green Algeria Alliance (AAV)

Party Leader: Bouguerra Soltani

Number of seats: 49

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Logo of Workers' Party

Workers' Party (PT )

Party Leader: Louisa Hanoune

Number of seats: 24

http://pt.dz/

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Algerian National Front (FNA )

Party Leader: Moussa Touati

Number of seats: 9

http://www.fnadz.org/

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Movement for National Reform

Party Leader: Abdallah Djaballah

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Movement of Society for Peace (MSP )

Party Leader: Abderrazak Makri

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Islamic Renaissance Movement (MRI)

Party Leader: Fatah Rabei

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Biographies

Image of Abdelaziz Bouteflika

Abdelaziz Bouteflika

President

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Image of Abdelmalek Sellal

Abdelmalek Sellal

Prime Minister

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Image of Hocine Aït-Ahmed

Hocine Aït-Ahmed

Historical leader of the Front of Socialist Forces

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Sources

Adam Carr's Homepage: People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria
Al-Arabiya
Al Jazeera
Al Jazeera: 4 May 207; Algeria votes amid expected low turnout
Al Jazeera: 5 May; Algeria ruling coalition wins parliamentary elections
Al-Bab Country briefing Algeria
Arab Decision: Political Parties Algeria
BBC Country profile: Algeria
BBC News: 13 July 2001; Algeria opposes UN Western Sahara plan
BBC News: 9 April 2004; Algeria's presidential challengers
BBC News : 5 May 2017: Algeria election
CIA: World Fact Book Algeria
CIDCM: Minorities at Risk; Berbers in Algeria
Country studies, Algeria
Dayan
Election Guide
Election Guide Encyclopaedia Britannica: Foreign relations of Algeria
European Commission: Euro-Mediterranean Partnership Algeria, National Indicative Programme 2005-2006
European Commission: EU’s Relations with Algeria
Freedomhouse: Country report Algeria 2005

Freedomhouse: Country report Algeria 2006
Global Security - Algerian National Liberation
Human Rights Watch: Algeria
Interior Ministry Algeria
IPU
Keesings
Magharebia
Medea: ALGERIA, Elections and Parliament National People’s Assembly
Middle East Eye
Presidential Website Algeria
Reporters Without Borders
Transparency International: Country report Algeria
Transparency International
TRT World: The true winner of Algeria's elections is the status quo
United Nations: Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women
United Nations Development Program: Programma on Governance in the Arab region, Civil Society in Algeria
United Nations Development Program: Programma on Governance in the Arab region, Fighting 
Corruption in Algeria
VOA News
Washington Post: 24 February 2011; Algeria's state of emergency is officially lifted
Wikipedia: 2010–2011 Algerian protests
Wikipedia: Elections in Algeria
Wikipedia: Foreign relations of Algeria
Wikipedia: Legislative elections
Wikipedia: Politics of Algeria
Worker’s Party